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The playing court and free zone (area outside of the playing court)


1.1.1 The playing court is rectangular, measuring 18 meters wide and 9 meters long. The free zone must at least be three meters wide

1.1.2 As for matches sanctioned by the International Federation Footvolley (FIFV) the playing court is rectangular, measuring 18 meters wide and 9 meters long. The area between the end lines and the free zone must be at least 5 meters.


1.2.1 The surface must be leveled and even sand, both inside and outside the boundary lines. It must be free of rocks, sea shells, and other debris that may injure a player.

1.2.2 As for matches sanctioned by the International Federation Footvolley (FIFV) , the sand must have a thickness of at least 40 cm .

1.2.3 The playing surface must not pose any injury threats to the players

1.2.4 As for international matches, the sand must be raked so that it achieves a fine and level surface, but must not result in the area being filled with dust. The surface must be free of any sort of sediments and any other material that may injure a player.

1.2.5 As for international matches, if rain persists, a cloth may be used to cover the entire playing field.


1.3.1 There are two side boundary lines and two end boundary lines.

1.3.2 There are no boundary lines separating the field in half

1.3.3 All boundary lines are to be 5 – 8 centimeters wide

1.3.4 All boundary lines are to be of the same color and must be clearly visible against the sand.

1.3.5 The boundary lines are to be made of stern and stretchable ribbons or similar material.


The service zone is any area behind the end lines, starting from where the by-lines and end lines meet extended. It could be as far back as the free zone allows.


The weather must not disrupt the flow of the game or pose injury threats to anybody.


For international matches taking place at night, the lights must measure between 1,000-1,500 lux. The officiating and technical crew are to check for the safety of the lights before the start of the match.


2.1 NET

The net is 9.5 meters long and 1 meter wide ( 3 centimeters shorter or longer is acceptable), with square meshes of 10 cm. The lateral strip on the top and bottom of the net should measure 5-8 centimeters in height and be placed vertically, and may have advertisements.


The vertical strip on the two sides of the net. It is 5-8 centimeters wide. It is 1 meter wide . A dvertisements are allowed .


The antennas are to be 1.8 meters high and 10 millimeters in diameter and to be made of fiber glass or of similar material. The two antennas are to be placed 80 centimeters from the two extreme ends of the net. They are to be red and white in color. The antennas are to be a part of the net and used for judging if the ball has legally crossed the net or not. ( picture 3 S ection 14.1.1)


The net should measure 2.20 meters ( 2.00 meters for women’s matches)


The posts must be stable and straight and 2.55 meters high. The posts must be placed between 0.5-1.00 meters away from the boundary lines



The ball must be a mandatory No.5 (No.4 for women) and made of leather or any elastic material that does not absorb water.

weight 410 – 440 grams

stitching 68 – 70 centimeters

pressure 0.56 – 0.63 Kilograms / cm s quared


A ll balls used in a match must be identical, including color, weight, air pressure, and stitching.


A match must have at least three balls and ball boys positioned at opposite corners of the playing field and behind the each referee.


4.1 COMPOSITION AND REGISTRATION4.1.1 Teams register with only two players

4.1.2 The two players who register are the only players allowed to play in the match.


a team must consist of one captain



5.1.1 The uniforms of a player consists of a shirt and shorts or swimming trunks.

5.1.2 For international matches, uniforms of players must match his/her team mate.

5.1.3 The uniforms must be clean

5.1.4 Players are not permitted to wear foot accessories, for example, ankle support, except with the referee’s permission.

5.1.5 Uniforms must have the numbers 1 and 2 either on the front or back of the shirt or on the pants.

5.1.6 The numbers must be of a contrasting color from the uniform and with a height of at least 10 cm and a thickness of at least 1.5 cm


5.2.1 If both teams end up having shirts of the same color, the referee may authorize a change of shirts for either team

5.2.2 Referee #1 can authorize one or all players to:

A ) Wear shoes, socks, or ankle support

B ) Change from wet or damp uniforms between sets

5.2.3 If a player persists, referee #1 may authorize a player to wear another shirt or warm-up uniforms.


5.3.1 Nothing should be worn that can be a cause for injury such as belts, ear rings, etc.

5.3.2 Players are allowed to wear sun glasses, but are responsible for any cause of injury that may occur regarding eye wear.

5.3.3 A player can not wear any unauthorized number. (Rule 5.1.5 and 5.1.6)




6.1.1 All players must learn and accept all rules and regulations before playing.

6.1.2 All players must accept every referee’s calls and judgments without any complaints; however, players may enquire the referee about any call.

6.1.3 All participants must treat all players, coaching staff, technical crew, officiating crew, and the audience with respect and sportsmanship

6.1.4 All players may not pressure the referee in changing his/her call.

6.1.5 All players must not waste time during a match.

6.1.6 P layers of the same team may communicate to each other during the game .

6.1.7 During a match and after the rally has been ruled dead, players may converse with the officiating crew.

(Rule 6.1.2) I n these three contexts



7.1.1 Type A: A single set match. Whoever wins the set wins the match.

7.1.2 TYPE B: A match consisting of a best of three sets. Whichever team wins two sets wins the match.


7.2.1 Type A: (Rule 7.1.1 ) The winning team is the first team to reach 18 points. If the score is tied at 17, the winner is decided if a team scores two consecutive points ( 19:17 , 20:18 ) or if necessary (after a 20:20 tie), whichever team reaches 21 points .

7.2.2 TYPE B: ( Rule 7.1.2 ) Whichever team reaches 18 points in a set first, wins the set. If the score is tied at 17, the winner is decided if a team scores two consecutive points ( 19:17 , 20:18 ) or if necessary (after a 20:20 tie), whichever team reaches 21 points. If teams are tied at one set apiece, the match goes to a deciding third set, with the winners the first to reach 15 points. If teams are tied at 14 points, the winner is decided if a team scores two consecutive points ( 16:14 , 17:15 ) or if necessary, 17 points wins the match after a 16:16 tie .


a team that wins a rally earns 1 point (Rule 7.2.1, 7.2.2) At any point during a set, when both teams’ scores are divisible by 6 ( 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 , 36) , then, the teams change sides



b efore the start of the match, the referee will call each team’s captain for the coin toss. The winner of the coin toss may choose to A ) serve or B) choose a side. The loser of the coin toss gets the reverse result of the coin toss for the second set. If the match goes to a third set, the coin toss would be conducted again.


b efore a match, if a playing field is available, athletes may warm up for three minutes there. But, if a playing field is unavailable, athletes may warm up for five minutes elsewhere .


9.1 the two athletes from each team must be on the playing field at all times .

9.2 substitutions are not permitted during a match .



10.1.1 D uring a serve, all players must be within the boundary lines (except for the server)

10.1.2 A player may position him/herself anywhere on the field inside the boundary lines during a serve.

10.1.3 There are no illegal positions for any player.


A service order (player #1, player#2, player #1, player#2, etc.) must be kept throughout the set (the captain tells the order to the referee after the coin toss)


10.3.1 After player #1 serves, player#2 on the same team serves for the team for the next time. This order is maintained through out the match.

10.3.2 T he scorekeeper informs everyone about the service order and corrects all inquiries about the service order .

10.3.3 A service order mistake. It would be considered illegal within the rules, and the opposing team would be rewarded one point . (Rule 12.2.1)

PLAYING ACTIONSTATES OF PLAY11.1 BALL IN PLAYthe start of play begins with the referee’s whistle and the ball is in play after the serve.


The referee will blow his/her whistle when he/her sees a fault within the rally and the play stops .

11.3 (BALL IN)

the ball is considered in bounds if it hits any area in the playing field, including any part of the boundary lines . (Rule 1.3)

11.4 (BALL OUT)

the ball is considered out of bounds if

a ) the ball lands anywhere outside of the playing field

b ) If it hits any object outside of the playing field or people other than the athletes

C ) If the ball hits the post or antenna or the strings connecting the two.

D ) If the ball curls around the post, and antenna, or the strings connecting the two.

(Rule 14.1.2, 14.1.3)


12.1 definition

12.1.1 If any occurrences occur outside of the rules stated in this draft, it is considered a fault .

12.1.2 The officiating crew will judge and faults and impose any punishment they seem fit .


12.2.1 A penalty will be imposed for every fault .

12.2.2 if two or more mistakes are made successively, then the first one is considered .

12.2.3 If both teams make a fault at the same time, then the point is replayed


13.1 TEAM HITS13.1.1 A team is permitted a maximum of three touches before sending the ball over the net and to the opposition half

13.1.2 A touch is counted towards a team, even though it may be an accidental touch.

13.1.3 A player is not allowed to play the ball consecutively, except after a deflection.

(Rule 18.2)

13.2 Simultaneous contacts

13.2.1 b oth players may touch the ball simultaneously

13.2.2 If two players on the same team touches the ball at the same time, then, it is considered two touches for the team. If both players chase a ball, but only one of them gets a touch, then, it is considered one touch for the team. If the players crash into each other, the play continues. (Rule18.4.2)

13.2.3 If a team touches the ball simultaneously and sends it over to the other half, then the opposition team continues to play with their allotted three touches. If a team touches the ball simultaneously and it goes out of bounds in the opposition half, then the team that sends the ball loses the rally.


A player may not use his/her team or other objects as leverage to reach the ball . I f a player is about to impeded in the opposition half, the other player may then pull that player back and avoid a playing fault .


13.4.1 A ball may touch any part of the body (except for the hands and arms)

13.4.2 U sing another player to get to a ball.


13.5.1 (four hit) A team touching the ball four times before sending the ball over the net to the other side (Rule 13.1.1)


A player uses his/her team mates or other objects as leverage for a hit

13.5.3 HELD BALL

When the ball hits the arm, forearm, or hand .


A player who touches the ball consecutively

Player at the net

A player must be at his/her half of the field at all times, although he/she may play the ball from the free zone into the opposition half .15.1 Reaching beyond the net

While playing the ball, a player may end up touching the net as result of his/her momentum . T his is not a violation . (Rule 18.3)

15.2 Penetration into the opponent space court and/or free zone

A player may cross into the opposition’s half (either in the playing field or out), if the player’s momentum carries him/her and does not interfere with the other team’s play .

15.3 Contact with the net

15.3.1 Purposeful contact with any part of the net or antenna is not allowed.

15.3.2 After a player plays the ball outside of the boundary line, that player may accidentally come in contact with the net, antenna, or posts. The play continues if that action does not interfere with the flow of the game.

15.3.3 If the ball comes in contact with the net and the net hits the opposition player, it is not considered a violation.

15.4 player’s fault at the net

15.4.1 Any part of the body that goes over the plane of the net. (Rule 15.1.1)

15.4.2 A player ventures into the opposition half, including from the free zone. ¼Ùé (Rule 15.2)


14.1 Ball crossing the net

14.1.1 The ball must cross over the net. It should be in the area between vertical plane of the net, which is defined like this:

A ) The lowest part of the net and the posts that support the net.

B ) The posts that support the net

14.1.2 The ball crossing over the net from outside the playing area and ends up inside the playing area in the opposition half would count as out of bounds.

14.1.3 The ball crossing below the net is considered a point gained for the opposition.

14.1.4 The player trying to prevent the ball from passing under the net is considered a point for the other team (Rule 15.2)

14.2 Ball touching the net

A ball that touches any part of the net while on its way to the other side. The play continues on. (Rule 14.1.1)

14.3 Ball in the net

14.3.1 If a ball touches the net, the ball is still deemed playable, with three touches for the receiving team.

14.3.2 If the ball creates a hole or breaks the net, the play is stopped and the point is replayed.


16.1 Definition

A serve is the method used to start the point by putting the ball in play, with the server kicking the ball from the ground to the opposition half.


If team A starts the serve in the first set, then team A starts the serve for the second set. (Rule 8.1)

16.3 Service order

The service order during a match :

A) After the service team wins the point, that player continues to serve for the next point.

B ) After the opposition team breaks the service team’s serve by scoring, that team starts the next point with their serve. The player that hasn’t served the point before will serve the ball when that team’s turn to serve has arrived.

16.4 Authorization of the service

Referee #1 has the authority to start the serve after he/she sees that the ball has been placed behind the end line and that the receiving team is ready.

16.5 Execution of the service

16.5.1 The server may do what he/she wishes to the sand before placing the ball on it for a serve. The server may serve the ball anywhere in the service zone. The server’s foot can not be anywhere inside the playing field.

16.5.2 I f the sand or wind moves the boundary line, then no fault is called .

16.5.3 The server has five seconds to serve the ball after the referee’s whistle and signal to serve

16.5.4 If a serve occurs before the referee’s signal, then, the serve is restarted.

16.5.5 A player may build a dune anywhere in the service zone and place the ball on it for the serve.

16.5.6 A serve is considered a serve after the foot strikes the ball, even though it may be unintentional.

16.5.7 A player may not fake a serve. He/she must strike the ball with the first motion of the kicking leg .

16.6 Screening

A player is not allowed to block the oppositions’ view of the ball when the serve is about to be executed.

1 6.7 Service faults

The following are service faults:

¡ ) P layer #1 (for example) continues to serve after his/her turn (Rule 16.3)

¢ ) S ervice fouls (Rule 16.5)

16.8 Service faults after hitting the ball

The serve is deemed playable unless:

A ) The ball hits the serving team’s other player, or if the ball does not make it through to the opposition half.

B ) The ball goes out of bounds. (Rule 11.4)

Attack hit

17.1 Definition

17.1.1 Any touch of the ball by a player, with the ball crossing over the net and into the opposition half.

17.1.2 The attack is completed once the ball completely crosses the plane of the net .

17.1.3 A player may rise as high as he/she wishes to attack the ball, but must do so in his/her half of the playing field.


17.2.1 A player strikes the ball in the opposition half. (Rule15.1.2)

17.2.2 The player strikes the ball and it lands outside of the boundary lines. (Rule 11.4)


18.1 definition

A defensive touch with intention of preventing the ball from crossing into the other side.

18.2 Hit by blocker

F irst contact with the ball


A fter a block hit, the foot may go beyond the plane of the net if it does not disrupt the opposition’s attempt at playing the ball.

18.4 blocking contact

18.4.1 A block is considered one touch, thus, two touches are permitted after the block.

18.4.2 If a player from Team A attacks the ball, and a player from Team B blocks it and the ball goes into Team A’s half, Team A can play the ball with, with three touches for the team being reset.

18.4.3 Any part of the body may be used for a block (except for the hands and arms).

18.5 Block faults 
A player can not attempt the block before the attack from the other team.

Time out and Delays

Time out

19.1 Definition

a time out is a break during a game called by either team, with a duration of 60 seconds.

19.2 Number of time outs

a team is permitted two time outs per set.

19.3 Request for timeouts

a team may called a time out when the ball is not in play and before the referee blows his/her whistle and signaling that the serve proceeds ( Picture 7 picture 4)

19.4 Improper requests

A time out is not allowed :

A ) When the ball is still in play or when the referee signals the start of a serve.

B ) Calling one timeout more than the amount allocated to the team per set. (Rule 19.2) (Rule 20.1)

Delays to the game

20.1 Types of delay

A ny delay of game is considered rude behavior and is considered when :

A ) Delaying entrance to the playing field after the referee’s orders to commence play.

B ) Calling more timeouts then the amount allocated to the team (Rule 19.4)

C ) Time wasting during a match.

20.2 Sanction for a delay

20.2.1 The first delay of game will be a warning.

20.2.2 The second and subsequent delay of games will result in a delay penalty and the opposition gaining a point.

Exceptional game delays

21.1 Injury

21.1.1 If an accident occurs resulting in an injury, the referee will stop the match immediately and replay the point.

21.1.2 An injured player may receive treatment for up to five minutes per set. The referee is the only person who has the right to allow treatment to an injured player. The referee can allow the medical staff to enter the playing field and treat the injured player, or may allow the injured player to leave the playing field and receive treatment. The referee will blow his whistle to resume play, and only the injured player can inform the referee if he/she can continue. If after five minutes the injured player can not continue, then the team forfeits the game, and the technical team will make the decision if he/she can continue play or not in later games. (Rule 7.4.3 and 9.1)

The timing starts when the referee allows the medical team to examine the injured player .

21.2 External interference

if so happens that outside interference disrupts the game, the game will stop and will continue replaying that point .

21.3 Prolonged interference

If any unexpected interference occurs and does not allow the game to continue, then the referee #1 or any event staff may call an end to the game.

21.3.1 If one interruption lasts for less than four hours, then the game resumes from the same score before the interruption.

21.3.2 if there is one interruption lasting four hours or more, the game will restart from the beginning.

court switches and intevals

22.1 Court switches

Both teams change sides after the scores of both team add up and is divisible by six .

22.2 Intervals

22.2.1 Intervals are given after the completion of a (matches of more than one set) with a 5 minute period. If the match goes to a 3 rd set, the coin toss will occur after that interval.(Rule 18.1)

22.2.2 When teams change sides, they are allowed a 30 second rest period. This only occurs with matches having more than one set. (Rule 22.1). I n singles set matches, there are no rest periods between sets . (Rule 7.1.3)

22.2.3 If any officiating crew forgets to authorize a change of sides after scores divisible by six, but remembers it after, then, teams do change sides, with the score divisible by six still being a factor of changing sides.


A ny form of behavior that is considered unacceptable to any other player, officiating crew, or audience member.

23.1 Categories

23.1.1 Showing a lack of sportsmanship, for example, arguing and/or raising one’s voice over a disagreement, etc.

23.1.2 Displaying rude behavior and looking down upon any of the athletes, officiating crew, or audience member.

23.1.3 Opposing the referee’s call and insult and disrespecting the referee

23.1.4 Displaying aggressive behavior and deliberately hurting someone else

23.2 Sanctions

P unishments will be imposed to athletes displaying poor behavior. Referee #1 will impose punishment(s) as he/she sees fit, and will be note it for further matches.

23.2.1 Misconduct warning

Is issued when a player displays unsportsmanlike behavior .

23.2.2 Misconduct penalty

Is issued when a player displays rude or unsportsmanlike behavior. The whole team is penalized and the opposing team gains a point .

23.2.3 Expulsion

Is issued after subsequent warnings and penalties. The player is forced to leave and the team forfeits the game

23.3 Sanction scale

The repetition of rude behavior by a single player is punishable through the scale of sanctions. a player can be punished by more than a red card .

23.4 a ny rude behavior during the interval of sets


Any inappropriate behavior before the match and in between sets. It can have an effect on the following set, according to the referee’s call.


SECTION 24 Refereeing Corps And Procedures

24.1 Composition

All matches will compose of these officiating crew

– referee #1

– referee #2

– scorekeeper

– 4 linesmen ( or 2 linesmen) each have individual positions ( picture# 6 )

24.2 Procedures

24.2.1 Only referee #1 and referee #2 are allowed to use whistles during a match

a ) Referee#1 gives the signal for the serve.

b ) The call goes forward if both referee blows the whistle and agrees on the same call .

24.2.2 The referee’s whistle confirms any call or action on the playing field .

24.2.3 The referee blows the whistle and give a hand signal for : (Rule 29.1)

A ) Which team gets to serve

B ) Any fault during the match (if the referee needs to clear up any confusion in service order)

C ) Any player faults during the match (if the referee needs to clear up any confusion)



Referee #1 is situated on either end of the net and on an elevated chair, positioned 50 centimeters from the net .


25.2.1 Referee #1 must officiate the match from start to finish, and is the leader of the officiating team. Referee #1’s call overrules all other officiating crew’s conflicting calls. Referee #1 may also authorize a change of officiating personnel he/she may see fit.

25.2.2 Referee #1 can order the ball boys to bring the ball(s) to one half of the playing field as he sees fit

25.2.3 Referee #1 has the final say of every matter before, during, and after the match.

25.2.4 Referee #1 can explain to the player about any enquiries they may have during the match. (Rule 6.1.7) Players may complain about the referee and record it on the score sheet.

25.2.5 Referee #1 is holds the responsibility of all proceedings in the stadium and in its vicinity.


25.3.1 Before the match, referee#1 must:

A ) Check that the playing field, the ball, and all other equipments are up to standard.

B ) Responsible for the coin toss with the respective team captains.

C ) Make sure that each team warms up before the match.

25.3.2 During a match, only referee#1 has the authority to

A ) Punish those whom he sees fit

B ) Officiate in the area of

– a ny faults the server might perform

– Any screening a player might do to block the view of the serve for the opposing team

– Any faults a player might perform when playing a ball

– Any faults regarding the net



Referee #2 is situated on the opposite side, across the playing field of referee #1 .


26.2.1 Referee #2 is the assistant for referee #1and has his/her own position on the field. Referee #2 has the responsibilities of Referee #1if Referee #1 can not make a call. (Rule 26.3)

26.2.2 Referee #2 will use hand signals to tell the situation on the field (ball in bounds or out of bounds, etc.), but not use the whistle.

26.2.3 Referee #2 may clear and understanding that the scorekeeper may have.

26.2.4 Referee #2 may allow timeouts for any team requesting one.

26.2.5 Referee #2 will also charge the timeout for the team after the team uses it.

26.2.6 Referee #2 will keep time for the incident involving an injured player.

(Rule 21.1.2)

26.2.7 Referee #2 will also inspect the balls before and during the match.


26.3.1 Referee #2 can use the whistle if

A ) If a player touches the lower portion of the net and the antenna that is on the same side as referee #2 (Rule 15.3.1)

B ) If a player touches the opposing team’s player under the net (a foul will be called and a point is awarded to the opposing team. (Rule 15.2)

C) If the ball touches the antenna or if the ball curls around the antenna (Rule 11.4)

D ) If the ball touches anything outside of the playing field (Rule 11.4)


27.1 Location

The scorekeeper is positioned in front of the scoreboard and faces referee #1.

27.2 Responsibilities

To correctly keep score and provide assistance to referee #2.

27.2.1 The scorekeeper will fill out the score sheet with all necessary information before the start of the match, and let the team captains sign the sheet.

27.2.2 During a match, the scorekeeper must:

A ) Keep score during the match and make sure the score is accurate

B ) Keep record of the service order

C ) Display the service order with a sign indicating the player’s number that has to serve

D ) Keep record of each team’s timeouts and inform referee #2

E ) Inform referee #1 if any team violates timeout standards. (Rule 19.4)

F ) Remind the referee about when the teams have to change sides

27.2.3 When the match concludes

A ) Finalized the score sheet and make sure it is accurate

B ) Have the team captains and the referees sign the score sheet

C ) Have all records of player misconduct and complaints on record (Rule 16.1.7)



28.1.1 For international matches, the linesman are positioned at the right hand side of referee #1 and referee #2 and stationed at the point where the bylines and the end lines meet, and 1-2 meters from the boundary line.

28.1.2 If 4 linesmen are used, then each person is positioned on each boundary line, and is 1-2 meters away from the line. (Rule 6)


28.2.1 Line judges are responsible for using a 30 x 30 cm flag for: (Picture 8)

A ) Telling everyone if the ball has landed inbounds or out of bounds , and is responsible for that call

B ) Telling everyone if the ball has hit a player before landing out of bounds

C ) Telling everyone if the ball has crossed the net illegally, either through the ball crossing the plane of the net from beyond the boundary line or if it hits the antenna (R ule 14.1.1). t he lineman is responsible for his/her line of the playing field

D ) Look and call for any foot faults during a serve

(Rule 16.5.1) The linesman tells referee #1 if the ball is inbounds or out.

Official’s signals

29.1 Referee’s hand signals

The referee will use hand signals to tell everyone the situation on the field 29.1.1 Will use hand signals indicating the serving team

29.1.2 Will use and perform the hand signal, and keep it in that position and show the players and everyone so they can see the call.

29.1.3 If necessary, the referee will use hand signals to indicate player faults or misbehavior.

29.2 Linesman signals (picture 8)

The linesman will use his flag to signal a call, and keep that position for a short time after the incident .










Ball above the net Ball lower the than top of the net Ball touches the net Ball bounces off the net



= First referee2 = Second refereeA = ScorerL = Linespersons (Line judges.)= Ball retrievers


P = Referee 1S = Referee 2L = Lineman


P = Referee 1S = Referee 2L = Lineman


P = Referee 1S = Referee 2L = Lineman


P = Referee 1S = Referee 2L = Lineman


P = Referee 1S = Referee 2L = Lineman


P = Referee 1S = Referee 2L = Lineman


Weight of Punisment Offense Punishment Card Consequence
1.Unsportsmanlike conduct st offense Warning Yellow card No action
nd offense Penalty Red card Opposition team receives point or serve
rd offense Expulsion Yellow followed by red card Consecutive yellow and red cards
2.Rude conduct st offense Penalty Red card Opposition team receives point or serve
nd offense Expulsion Yellow followed by red card Leave the playing court
3.Offensive conduc st offense Disqualification Yellow followed by red card Leave the playing area
4.Aggression Conduct